The latest trials, tribulations, and thoughts from the club you know and love.
  • 03/07/2014 12:38 PM | Deleted user
    Use and Care of Oak Barrels for Aging Beer
    by J. Frey, F.H. Steinbart Co.

    Oak barrels are widely used in wine making and the spirit industry for the flavor they impart as well as their effect on the aging process. Brewers and breweries have recently grown fond of using oak barrels for similar reasons, but the nature of an oak barrel’s use for beer is a bit different. Brewers typically (but not always) age beer in a barrel previously used for spirits or wine. Beers aged in these barrels pick up the essence of the beverage previously contained in the barrel as well as oak flavor. Depending on how the barrel was handled, sanitation and preparation practices can be different from those used for new barrels.

    The flavors imparted by oak range from smokey, tannin/tannic, toasted/charred to smooth, rich chocolate and/or vanilla and of course, woody. The type of oak used and the level of toast determine the flavors imparted in the aged beverage. In my experience, American oak provides a more wood-forward flavor. The tannins are high impact, lending crisp woody characteristics. French oak is known for its smooth and soft flavor impact. When I am looking for the classic vanilla-like oak flavor and aroma notes, I look to French oak. Please note that these are “nutshell” descriptions based on my personal experience and much more can be learned about the flavors imparted by various oak origins and toast levels.

    The major factors governing how much flavor is imparted are the amount of time that the beverage is left in contact with the wood, as well as the ratio of total oak surface area to amount of beer in contact with that surface area. When adding oak pieces to a container of beer, one can increase the amount of oak used to decrease the contact time necessary to extract suitable flavor. For barrel use this means that smaller barrels impart flavor faster than larger barrels. This is because a larger barrel has a lower ratio of surface area to volume than a smaller barrel. Barrel aging also imparts subtle oxidation to a beverage overtime, and this effect is accelerated in smaller barrels, just as the flavor impact is. It is also important to remember that a barrel will impart significant flavor in the beginning of its life, but will impart diminishing amounts of flavor with consecutive uses.

    Prepping a new barrel for its first use:

    A new barrel from a reputable supplier should be biologically sound and only needs to be swelled with clean water to tighten the joints in the pieces of wood and prevent leakage. If you need to clean a used barrel, refer to the cleaning procedures below before filling the barrel.

    The hot water method for swelling a new barrel is recommended because it uses less water thus stripping out less oak flavor in the process. Follow these steps:
    1. Fill the barrel with clean hot, steamy water to 20% capacity. Hot water and vapor will swell the staves of the barrel faster than cold water.
    2. Insert the bung and slosh the water around the entire surface of the barrel. Agitate the water inside the barrel until any leaky areas in the sides seal up and stop seeping water.
    3. Stand the barrel on one end and allow the head (the round, flat end section) to swell until it stops leaking. Flip the barrel and allow the other head to swell.
    4. Place the barrel bung-down to allow the water to drain thoroughly. Allow the barrel to cool down and dry adequately before immediately filling with your beverage of choice.
    The cold water method will seal most problematic leaks and is recommended for barrels that have been stored dry for extended periods of time. Since this method uses more water for longer contact time, more flavor will be stripped from the barrel than when using the hot water method.
    1. Fill the barrel completely with cold, clean water and soak overnight. This should be done above a floor drain or somewhere that you wouldn’t mind water leaking onto the ground for a day or two.
    2. Add one campden tablet (crushed) per 20 gallons of water to neutralize any chlorine in the water.
    3. All reasonable leaks should seal up overnight or in a few days. Water should never be left in the barrel for more than 48 hours to avoid mold or bacteria growth. If more than 48 hours soak time is needed to seal any leaks, the barrel should be drained and refilled with fresh water.
    4. When all leaks have sealed, place the barrel bung-down and drain thoroughly before immediately filling with your beverage of choice.
    Most brewers prefer to use freshly drained spirit or wine barrels to age beer, because it also imparts the essence of the previous beverage. If the barrel is filled with beer almost immediately after the draining of the original beverage, and the barrel is properly handled, it will not need to be cleaned before filling. If the previous beverage is biologically sound, then the barrel is sanitary as well. If the previous beverage is contaminated (in the case of wine) it is impossible to remove the bacteria completely because contaminants can hide deep in the crevices away from cleaning procedures.

    Since it is not always possible to fill the barrel with beer immediately after draining, it is sometimes necessary to store the barrel either dry or with a storage solution. Storing the barrel dry with the proper method is recommended because it will strip fewer flavors than the storage solution method. The dry storage method is as follows:
    1. After draining the barrel, rinse it several times with hot, then cold water and allow it to drain thoroughly.
    2. Place the barrel bung-side-up and insert a sulfur stick burner with 5 grams of burning sulfur stick per 60 gallons barrel capacity. A sulfur stick burner can be purchased or made at home. It consists of an apparatus to hang a flameproof cup inside the barrel and the cup itself, which needs to hold/hang the burning sulfur-stick and also catch the ashes and prevent them from depositing into the barrel. Most sulfur-stick burners also have a bung to close off the barrel and contain the sulfur gas inside. Think of a coat hanger, a small steel cup, and some ingenuity. Sulfur-sticks should be burned outside in a well ventilated area because sulfur gas is harmful to breathe.
    3. After burning the sulfur-stick, bung the barrel tightly to trap the sulfur gas inside. Store your barrel in a sound environment at the proper humidity. The sulfur-stick treatment should be repeated every six to eight weeks to replenish the antimicrobial effect of the gas. 
    It is possible to store your barrel wet with a storage solution. The downside of this is that oak flavor will be stripped from the barrel as you store it. The upside is that the barrel can be stored for longer periods of time without continuous care, and there is less risk of the barrel drying out. Barrels kept full of storage solution will not need to be checked for leaks/swelled before filling with beer. The steps are as follows:
    1. Calculate your storage solution chemicals needed for your barrel capacity; 1 gram of citric acid and 2 grams of So2 powder per liter of barrel capacity. This solution can be corrosive to metals and can etch concrete floors. Be judicious with its use and wash up residual amounts that may spill.
    2. Fill the barrel half-way with cold water.
    3. Mix up your chemicals needed into a few liters of warm water until everything is dissolved. The fumes of this solution are abrasive and harmful to breathe, so do this in a well ventilated area.
    4. Add the chemical solution to the barrel, mix thoroughly and top the barrel up to capacity with more cold water. Bung the barrel securely.
    5. You will need to top up the storage solution periodically depending on evaporation rates.
    6. This solution will need to be replaced eventually, but it is hard to say how often. A good rule of thumb would be quarterly (every 3 months).
    Barrel aging has a profound effect on the beer stored inside the barrel. Aside from the flavors introduced, barrel aged beers develop superior body and “structure,” in part from the concentration of flavors through evaporation. The slow exchange of oxygen through the walls of the wood lend a controlled maturation. Although the oak flavor contributed by a barrel will be completely spent in about 3-4 uses, the barrel will continue to offer its “structuring” benefits. Barrels that have lost most of their oak flavor can be “refreshed” by adding new oak pieces through the bung. The best determining factor in how long to leave your beer in the barrel is taste. As discussed earlier, smaller barrels impart flavor and other benefits faster than larger barrels. Over generations upon generations of wine and spirit makers and countless vintages of wood aged beverages, professionals have decided upon 30-60 gallon sized barrels as an ideal size for aging. Decisions about the aging process are done intuitively, and it will take some experience to gain an appreciation for the details of barrel aging. It is recommended to save a portion of un-oaked beer outside of the barrel to preserve the possibility of blending back in to the oaken beer, affording you the option of balancing the oak flavors in the direction of less oak. In this way, beer can always be left on oak for longer to develop more of its benefits, and in the case of mild “over-oaking” it can always be blended back into perfect balance.

    Barrel spoilage:

    With proper care and attention to detail, your barrel will provide you years of use. Visible mold growing on the outside of the barrel is relatively normal from time to time, but should be cleaned in a timely manner to avoid the growth of the problem penetrating the spaces between the staves, eventually working its way to the inside of the barrel. These problem areas should be scrubbed with a coarse brush and a solution made in the manner of the storage solution outlined above (1 gram of citric acid and 2 grams of So2 powder per liter of water). Take care not to leave the solution in contact with the metal hoops of a barrel to avoid corrosion of the hoops.

    Unfortunately, a contamination issue left ignored for any period of time will render your barrel unusable. Bacteria can reside deep in the crevices of the wood, safe from the reach of our cleaning methods, only to emerge later and contaminate the next batch of beer introduced to the barrel. Proper sanitation methods combined with the proper barrel care outlined in this article will ensure a minimum of contamination issues for the life of your barrel. Under a worst-case scenario, a barrel can be sent to professional for a service in which the inside of the barrel is scraped, exposing new oak and re-fired to renew the toast to the wood. This can eradicate minor contamination but not well established colonies of bacteria. A confirmed brettanomyces contamination is said to be permanent in the wood, and these barrels should not be further used to age beer unless the bacteria is desired in the flavor profile. They make great decorations, furniture, or planters. Alternatively, you could dive into the murky depths of sour beer brewing (another topic reserved for another article).

    With proper care and a little luck your barrel will provide years of trusty service. Employ steadfast attention to detail to limit contamination to an absolute minimum and you will "WOW" your friends and peers with beers as complex and high-impact as the super limited, wait-in-line, $20 per-bottle, wax-dipped, hand-numbered super beers that we are all so familiar with in this town!

    Thanks for reading and cheers!
  • 03/03/2014 2:26 PM | Deleted user
  • 03/03/2014 2:12 PM | Deleted user

  • 02/08/2014 11:37 AM | Deleted user
    The Presidential Pint
    by Ted Assur

    It’s February 1st, and I’m riding the Amtrak back from Eugene drinking a Hop Valley “Double-D Blonde” with former Burgermeister, Josh Huerta who graciously joined me for the “ride the train with the president” event.

    I’ve just finished my 3rd beer competition judging in as many weeks. Sure, my wife has forgotten what I look like, and my kids are drawing pictures of “Papa + Beer = “HEART”

    But I love judging beer. And it’s not just for the days away, drinking free beer (of variable quality). I think there’s no better way to help other homebrewers improve, than to provide them with honest, blind feedback. Before joining the board, I would enter every competition I could find, just to have someone be honest with me (sorry mom!), and help me improve my brewing.

    Beer judges are in high demand.

    There’s no simpler way to put it. Many of you that responded to our member survey last year indicated you want to judge, but weren’t quite sure where to start. The simplest way is to contact a local competition coordinator and ask them! (see more in this month’s, “So you want to be a beer judge?” article). Or, if you want to hear about the more glamorous side of judging, check out Jason Barker’s article recounting the first-ever Best of Craft Beer Awards.

    In other news:

    • Be sure to check out our new “OBC Homebrewer’s Cup” and “Member of the Year” (previously Homebrewer of the Year award) updates. The 2013 board worked very hard to recalibrate these competitions for you.

    • I’m thrilled that the membership passed our scholarship and NHC subsidy votes this last month. Your board is continuing to look for ways we can directly and indirectly benefit the membership. Thank you for your support.

    • Personally, my focus right now is putting together our club’s entry
    in the
    AHA Radegast Club of the Year Award. To that end, we’ll have a small video crew at this month’s out meeting at Ecliptic Brewing.

    I hope you can join us.

    Josh is looking thirsty again. I’m glad the competition asked us to take a few of these beers for the ride. Cheers! 

  • 02/05/2014 12:30 PM | Deleted user
    So, you want to be a beer judge?
    by Ted Assur

    Ahhh, the beer judge. Sounds like the best job in the world: getting invited to drive around the land, tasting all the beer you can handle, and maybe getting a free meal (wait, free beer AND free food?).

    It’s not really that easy, but it can be very enjoyable. If you really want to up your game on beer appreciation and production, this is the way to do it.

    Getting started:
    I started judging after getting feedback from several beers I had entered at competitions. I had no idea what was involved, except my beers go into a room with a bunch of people, and out comes some papers with comments and numbers. I wanted to find out what it was all about.

    I first volunteered to judge at the 2011 OBC Fall Classic, with a fellow Novice judge (a term used by the Beer Judge Certification Program, aka BJCP, to indicate a non-certified, not necessarily inexperienced judge). Over the course of the event, I was paired with two different BJCP Certified judges from the OBC. I was quickly schooled on the basics of how to judge a beer:
    1. Know the style: beer can be made and entered to specific style expectations. There are style guidelines that judges compare the entry to. Read and understand the style guideline for the beer you’re judging. When you’re getting started, it may help to focus on beer styles you think you like (more on this later), than just judging any style: if you’re an IPA fiend, and hate or have never had sours, don’t judge sours. Do the IPAs.
    2. Evaluate the beer: compare what your senses are telling you to what the style guidelines say about the beer. If the guideline says it should be a “malt-forward style,” and you’re getting big, citrusy hop aromas and flavors, something is not in alignment here. For me, this is really the second-hardest part of the job: identifying specific sensory feedback, especially in complex beers, takes patience and practice. But, when you’re starting out, stick with the basics: listen to your senses, compare that to the style description.
    3. Describe the beer: We’re not just in it to taste it: the hardest part is converting these sensory stimuli into a vocabulary. When you first start out, you’re going to say you taste “sweet”, “bitter”, “flowery”. You’re going to say you smell “hoppy”, “malty”, “alcohol.” Through practice in working with other, experienced judges, you’ll get more and more specific in describing the character of these senses, and knowing what words to use in providing a description.
    4. Find and describe faults: This may seem harsh, but you’re not just judging the beer as a recipe, but how well it was done. Anyone can burn a Betty Crocker's Double Fudge Chocolate Cake. That doesn’t make it a bad cake mix. You’ll learn how to separate recipe flaws from production flaws. I think the easiest way, at the beginning, is to identify flavors or aromas that aren’t what most people consider beer taste and smells: buttered popcorn, canned corn, sweet sauerkraut, bologna, band-aids. Not what most people want in their beer. Oddly enough, though some of these might be acceptable in some styles!
    These four things are what all judges do. The degree and skill with which they do them varies, but the basics are the same.

    Take a class:
    After novice judging one time, I had the great opportunity to attend a BJCP class offered by local BJCP (now Master) Judge, Bill Schneller. This incredible survey of beer styles opened my mind to a world of beer like I’d never known. I thought I knew beer. I was wrong. I tasted and blind-judged styles I had categorically avoided, only to discover they were really interesting and often…delicious. I learned to appreciate a good example of a style, even if I didn’t care for it. If you want to judge beer and have never taken a style class, do it. Even if you don’t plan on pursuing certification, understanding the history, geography, recipe and production differences in beer styles will expand your beer appreciation immensely.

    If you’ve never judged a competition, and feel you’re really not qualified yet, but want to learn more, the best fit for you would be a competition steward. I won’t kid you: hands-down, these are the hardest working folks at a beer competition. They are the judges’ right hands in getting things done. They make sure judges have the right beer, and everything they need to properly judge. As a steward, you get to see everything about judging a beer, without putting a pencil to a scoresheet. Ideally, your table will share examples of great, and not-so-great entries. Often a buttery ‘dactyl bomb’ can be just as educational as a gloriously citrus and tropical hop-bomb.

    Filling a need - Getting Certified:
    The challenge for every competition organizer isn’t just getting enough judges. It’s getting enough certified judges. Every table needs at least one, and the ratio of judges to number-of-entries can be the difference between a smoothly run competition, and vicious slog.

    If you’re ready to try this route, the first step is take the entrance exam. It costs $10, and can be taken once a day until you pass it. Once you pass this, you are a “Provisional Judge” and can take the BJCP Beer Judging Exam. This is 6-beer, 90-minute practical tasting exam, and costs $40. In essence, it’s a closed-book judging. Pass this exam with 60% or better, and you’re a Recognized Beer Judge. Don’t, and you’re still an “Apprentice,” with a year to retake it.

    These are bare-bones essentials of becoming a BJCP judge, meant for a beginning audience: there are more details you can learn once you get into it (the points and ranking system, etc).

    If you’re looking for information I recommend Gordon Strong’s article, “So you want to be a beer judge?” It’s a great next step if you’re considering it, in spite of having been written ten years ago.

    Finally, the next opportunity to judge or steward locally is at Strange Brew’s 17th Annual Slurp & Burp, held next month. Register online to enter your beers, and also to judge or steward.
  • 02/05/2014 12:17 PM | Deleted user
    Judging the Best of Craft Beer Awards
    by Jason Barker

    It all started with me scanning the Beer Judge Certification Program (BJCP) competition website
 in search of judging opportunities to get more points so I could reach the next judging rank of National. I see there is a new competition in Bend called the “Best of Craft Beer Awards” featuring only commercial beers, no homebrew. Hmmm, this sounds different and I‘ve been looking for an excuse to weekend in Bend with the wife so this was perfect timing.

    I contacted the event organizer to register as a judge and learned of a huge bonus, they were willing to put us up at the Inn at the Seventh Mountain Resort for 3 nights FOR FREE INCLUDING MEALS**… uhhhhh, ok I guess that’s a good deal, what, aren’t you going to fly us to Bend too?! The news of this offer spread quickly through the BJCP judges in Oregon.

    As I write this on Monday morning after the event, I have to say what a wonderful and generous experience this was. We judged for 2 days at the Seventh Mountain resort and had full access to all the facilities during our time off; think hot tubs, swimming pools, outdoor ice skating, outside fires and the stunning central Oregon scenery, all for the price of tasting beers and writing down what we think of them. Not a bad trade huh? It isn’t all fun and games, I mean its serious business when you’ve whittled down 13 American Amber Ale entries to just 3 and now you have to decide who’s getting the gold medal. Brows begin furrowing, attitudes degrade, lifelong friendships are dashed, and opinions flow like wine, errrr beer, while we judges argue as ferociously as Israel and Iran at a peace conference. But it must be done; people MUST KNOW WHO MAKES THE BEST AMBER ALE THIS WEEKEND! Then it’s back to reality and those friendships are rekindled over yet another beer except maybe this time it’s an English Barleywine.

    We had a chance to visit at length with old beer friends from around the state and to meet new ones from the Bend area. There were reps from several Oregon breweries and brewing related businesses that really enjoyed picking our brains about the process of becoming a BJCP beer judge and what it means to decide gold medal winners at such a competition. BJCP judges are in short supply, we are in demand!  I’ve been judging for about 3 years, and every single competition I’ve participated in has been short of BJCP judges. 

    Please consider becoming a BJCP judge. It doesn’t take a magical tongue of gold nor do you need to become a snooty beer snob. Just be willing to taste every style of beer imaginable and critique them objectively. Not every competition that we judge will comp you room and board, it’s rare in fact. But it shows that breweries need knowledgeable people to help them assess their beers, just like we as homebrewers do.

    The very first step to becoming a BJCP judge is to find a local competition and ask the organizer if you can judge as a novice. You will be paired up with an experienced BJCP judge who will walk you through the process live during the competition. There are many technical aspects to becoming a BJCP judge but don’t get overwhelmed, just be willing to judge a category of beers (American IPAs for example) objectively according to the BJCP guidelines. Don’t like super hoppy beers? Fine, you can generally pick the style of beer you’d prefer to judge in the beginning. Once you’ve judged as a novice a couple times you’ll decide whether to continue and take the next step towards certification, or maybe it’s just not for you. Either way, I promise you will learn a TON about beer, beer styles, beer making, and my favorite, making new beer friends.Enough for now, we have an appointment to tour Ale Apothecary Brewery this morning. Fun! 

    **”Meals” turned out to be such ho-hum entrees such as steamed lemon salmon, tri-tip beef, mushroom chicken, smoked salmon and trout, lamb, lobster brioche, sage rubbed game hen, duckling with baby greens, gruyere au gratin potatoes, wasabi ahi tuna, etc. Oh and there was a Good Life Brewing beer on tap at all meal times, you guessed it, for free. 

    Go here to learn about becoming a BJCP judge or just ask a board member!
  • 02/05/2014 12:03 PM | Deleted user
    A Word from the Burgermeister
    by Jason Barker

    A big thank you to those members that brought food to the January meeting. I love cooking and serving food to people, but with about 120 members to satisfy, I certainly appreciate the help you guys provided.

    For future meetings, I really don't think I'll be doing any real "themes" for food. Why? Because we want diversity. One overwhelming response we got from the member survey was that people wanted more food options at each meeting, especially vegetarian options.

    Keep your eyes peeled for the meeting reminder emails and I'll announce any special food requests I have for that week. Otherwise, I welcome you bringing whatever dishes you want to share. If you can, figure out a way to label your food item so people know what it is and who made it. Last meeting I provided white paper labels on which we just wrote "John's pasta salad-vegetarian" and "Jason's bean dip-spicy" for example. I received positive feedback from many members on this so let's continue. Also, remember to label your cookware so it doesn't get lost. I'll have some tape and a marker for this purpose if you forget.

    To prevent the likely scenario of 47 dishes of pasta salad showing up at the same meeting, I request that you throw me a quick email to let me know what you're bringing please so we can coordinate. Also, please send me feedback on any in-meeting food related info you think I need to know about. I welcome your input. This is your club and your dues that I'm spending so please make sure I'm on track with your expectations.

    The next in-meeting that we'll need food at is FH Steinbart's on Thursday, March 13th so be thinking about what interesting dish you want to make!  By popular demand I will be repeating the curry dip, bean dip, and hummus. My wife Lisa will be making her Mexican flan that is so smooth it's unbelievable! I'm still pondering the main dish, but word on the street is there will be Zenner's dogs in attendance too.  Lastly, if there is rice again this time, it won't be a sticky as speckling paste, I promise.
  • 02/02/2014 11:00 PM | Deleted user
    Here are a few competitions that YOU should know about:

    February 28, 2014, will be the deadline for the Washington Mead & Cider Cup. The last time this event was held (2012) it had 133 entries. If you make mead or cider, scoring a win here will get you significant bragging rights. Contact Laura Sullivan for more information.

    • Strange Brew's 17th Annual Slurp and Burp Open will be held on March 15, 2014, at 13 Virtues Brewing Co.  The deadline for entries is March 7, 2014.  Entries can be dropped off at most homebrew shops around Portland and beyond.  Check the Strange Brew website for entrant and judge registration or contact Paul Johnson, Competition Coordinator, for more information. 

    • The OBC's Style Competition Program returns this in March with Small Beers (any BJCP style that tops out at O.G. 1.040). Please bring your Small Beers to the OBC meeting on March 13, 2014.

    • COHO's Spring Fling Homebrew Competition will be held on May 10, 2014, at a location to be determined.  The deadline for entries is April 26, 2014 at most drop locations (including FH Steinbart Company).  Please check the competition website for more details on registration, judging location, and drop sites.

    • The OBC's 2nd Annual Heart of Cascadia Homebrew Competition will be held on May 17, 2014, at the Green Dragon. The deadline for entries is May 1, 2014. This competition is solely for Cascadia Dark Ales and Northwest Reds (judged according to unique style guidelines). Check here for more information.
  • 01/19/2014 11:02 PM | Anonymous
    January 2014
    In collaboration with the Seibel Institute of Technology, the Glen Hay Falconer Foundation is offering two full-tuition brewing education scholarships in 2014.  Both scholarship are full tuition grants and come with generous travel/lodging stipends.

    The first scholarship is to the World Brewing Academy Concise Course in Brewing Technology in Chicago in October 2014. The Concise Course in Brewing Technology is a two-week intensive program that covers every topic critical to successful brewery operations. The program is designed for brewers pursuing a wider knowledge of professional brewing standards and techniques in order to advance their brewing careers as well as individuals planning to enter the brewing industry. The Concise Course scholarship includes a $1,000 stipend to help offset travel and lodging expenses.

    The second scholarship is to the World Brewing Academy International Diploma Course running from September to November 2014 at Siebel’s Chicago and Munich campuses. The International Diploma course is a 12-week comprehensive course intended for brewers seeking an in-depth understanding of the technical aspects and practical application of brewing science and technology. The International Diploma Course scholarship includes a stipend of up to $5,000 to help offset travel and lodging expenses.

    Applicants must be from the states Washington, Oregon, Idaho, Montana, Wyoming, Colorado, Utah, Nevada, California, Alaska, and Hawaii. The Concise Course scholarship is open to individuals planning to enter the brewing industry and to brewers with no more than three years of brewery work experience.  The International Diploma Course is open to aspiring and professional brewers. 

    Note that the full application must be received no later than April 21, 2014.  Complete details and scholarship applications are available at www.siebelinstitute.com.

    The Glen Hay Falconer Foundation is a non-profit organization dedicated to providing educational opportunities for professional and aspiring craft brewers to further their knowledge and expertise.  The Falconer Foundation has granted 25 scholarships since 2004.  For more information on the Foundation please visit www.glenfalconerfoundation.org and follow us on Facebook.
  • 01/03/2014 12:00 AM | Deleted user
    The OBC board recently sent out a survey to all of the members seeking feedback and input on the club.  The board received about 70 responses and got a lot of great feedback on variety of issues. For those of you that responded to the survey, thank you for taking the time to provide your input. 

    A summary of a few key results from the survey is visible below, excerpted from the the OBC's January 2014 Newsletter.

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